In order to solve the problems of quality control and traceability of medical test lung for meeting the calibration conditions of JJF 1234-2018 Calibration Specification for Ventilators, the calibration device and method are researched for compliance and airway resistance of medical test lung in this paper. A calibration device for medical test lung is designed using constant volume active piston technology to simulate human breathing. Through comparison experiment, the deviation between this device and the similar foreign device can be found. The deviation is lower than 0.4% for lung compliance and lower than 0.7% for airway resistance. The calibration of lung compliance and airway resistance can be completed by this device. This device has a clear and complete traceability path to ensure quality control from the source. The calibration of ventilator is improved. This paper provides a reference for related metrology departments and medical institutions to study on quality inspection of respiratory medical instruments.